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Useful options

git log --oneline # Display single commit information per line
git rev-list HEAD --count # Total number of commits
git shortlog # Summarize `git log` output
git commit --amend -m "New commit message" # Edit the last commit message


  • Remove a file from history

    $ git filter-branch --force --index-filter \
    "git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch PATH-TO-YOUR-FILE-WITH-SENSITIVE-DATA" \
    --prune-empty --tag-name-filter cat -- --all
  • Get a list of the deleted files in history

    ## without commit hashes
    git log --diff-filter=D --summary | grep delete

    ## with commit hashes
    git log --diff-filter=D --summary | grep -E 'delete|^commit\s+\S+'
  • Amend older or multiple commit messages

    • Display a list of the last n commits in the default text editor

      git rebase -i HEAD~n
    • Replace pick with reword before each commit message you want to change, save and close the commit list file.

    • In each resulting commit file, type the new commit message, save the file, and close it.

    • Push the amended commits.

      git push --force
  • Amend the very first commit message [*]

    git rebase -i --root
  • Squash all previous commits into one [*]

    git reset $(git commit-tree HEAD^{tree} -m "A new start")
  • Print a leaderboard of authors based on number of commits in a repository

    git log --format='%aN' | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr
    git log --format='%aN' | sort -u # Print all contributors in alphabetical order